Thursday, February 11, 2010

Common Terms For Diabetes (mostly T1)

I am going to share some common terms for Diabetics- mostly Type 1

Type 1 diabetes (T1)
a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults.

Type 2 diabetes (T2)
a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin efficiently. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults but can appear in young people.


honeymoon phase
Some people with type 1 diabetes experience a brief remission called the "honeymoon period." During this time their pancreas may still secrete some insulin. Over time, this secretion stops and as this happens, the person will require more insulin from injections. The honeymoon period can last weeks, months, or even up to a year or more.

hypoglycemia (hy-po-gly-SEE-mee-uh)a condition that occurs when one's blood glucose is lower than normal, usually less than 70 mg/dL. Signs include hunger, nervousness, shakiness, perspiration, dizziness or light-headedness, sleepiness, and confusion. If left untreated, hypoglycemia may lead to unconsciousness. Hypoglycemia is treated by consuming a carbohydrate-rich food such as a glucose tablet or juice. It may also be treated with an injection of glucagon if the person is unconscious or unable to swallow. Also called an insulin reaction.

autoimmune disease (AW-toh-ih-MYOON)
disorder of the body's immune system in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys body tissue that it believes to be foreign.

blood glucose (Which I usually label BS-for blood sugar- and it is BS)!
the main sugar found in the blood and the body's main source of energy. Also called blood sugar.

blood glucose level
the amount of glucose in a given amount of blood. It is noted in milligrams in a deciliter, or mg/dL.

blood glucose meter
a small, portable machine used by people with diabetes to check their blood glucose levels. After pricking the skin with a lancet, one places a drop of blood on a test strip in the machine. The meter (or monitor) soon displays the blood glucose level as a number on the meter's digital display.

blood glucose monitoring
checking blood glucose level on a regular basis in order to manage diabetes. A blood glucose meter (or blood glucose test strips that change color when touched by a blood sample) is needed for frequent blood glucose monitoring.

bolus (BOH-lus)
an extra amount of insulin taken to cover an expected rise in blood glucose, often related to a meal or snack.

borderline diabetes
a former term for Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

A1C
a test that measures a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months. Hemoglobin (HEE-mo-glo-bin) is the part of a red blood cell that carries oxygen to the cells and sometimes joins with the glucose in the bloodstream. Also called hemoglobin A1C or glycosylated (gly-KOH-sih-lay-ted) hemoglobin, the test shows the amount of glucose that sticks to the red blood cell, which is proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood.

adult-onset diabetes
former term for Type 2 diabetes.

anemia (uh-NEE-mee-uh)
a condition in which the number of red blood cells is less than normal, resulting in less oxygen being carried to the body's cells.

antibodies (AN-ti-bod-eez)
proteins made by the body to protect itself from "foreign" substances such as bacteria or viruses. People get Type 1 diabetes when their bodies make antibodies that destroy the body's own insulin-making beta cells.

brittle diabetes
a term used when a person's blood glucose level moves often from low to high and from high to low.

calorie
a unit representing the energy provided by food. Carbohydrate, protein, fat and alcohol provide calories in the diet. Carbohydrate and protein have 4 calories per gram, fat has 9 calories per gram, and alcohol has 7 calories per gram.

carbohydrate (kar-boh-HY-drate)
one of the three main nutrients in food. Foods that provide carbohydrate are starches, vegetables, fruits, dairy products and sugars.

carbohydrate counting
a method of meal planning for people with diabetes based on counting the number of grams of carbohydrate in food.

coma
a sleep-like state in which a person is not conscious. May be caused by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) in people with diabetes.

endocrinologist (EN-doh-krih-NAH-luh-jist)
a doctor who treats people who have endocrine gland problems such as diabetes.


hypoglycemia unawareness (un-uh-WARE-ness)
a state in which a person does not feel or recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia. People who have frequent episodes of hypoglycemia may no longer experience the warning signs of it.

injection (in-JEK-shun)
inserting liquid medication or nutrients into the body with a syringe. A person with diabetes may use short needles or pinch the skin and inject at an angle to avoid an intramuscular injection of insulin.

injection site rotation
changing the places on the body where insulin is injected. Rotation prevents the formation of lipodystrophies.

insulin pen
a device for injecting insulin that looks like a fountain pen and holds replaceable cartridges of insulin. Also available in disposable form.

I just switched from injecting from needles to an insulin pen back in December 2009. These are the ones I use:




ketone
a chemical produced when there is a shortage of insulin in the blood and the body breaks down body fat for energy. High levels of ketones can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis and coma. Sometimes referred to as ketone bodies.

lancet
a spring-loaded device used to prick the skin with a small needle to obtain a drop of blood for blood glucose monitoring.

pancreas (PAN-kree-us)
an organ that makes insulin and enzymes for digestion. The pancreas is located behind the lower part of the stomach and is about the size of a hand

self-management
in diabetes, the ongoing process of managing diabetes. Includes meal planning, planned physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, taking diabetes medicines, handling episodes of illness and of low and high blood glucose, managing diabetes when traveling, and more. The person with diabetes designs his or her own self-management treatment plan in consultation with a variety of health care professionals such as doctors, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and others
All information was found on http://www.diabetes.org/
Naomi

1 comment:

  1. The Humalog Pen is SO COOL! I was using the Lantus and Humalog one for a while and then thought - maybe the vials would be cheaper... I think I'll be switching back soon. But yeah, the Humalog pen that I had didn't look like a real pen! It looked like the Lantus one but in the Humalog burgundy color.

    Good to know basics for those unfamiliar with Diabetes! Thanks for the post!!

    ReplyDelete